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Elijah Murphy
Elijah Murphy

Download Printable Maps of India and Its Neighbours: A Useful Resource for Students, Teachers, and Researchers



India is located in the Southern part of Asia. It is the second-largest country in South- East Asia. It is in the Northern Hemisphere and Eastern Hemisphere of the world. India is the seventh-largest country of the world as per the area and the second largest in the population count. India has a very vast geographical area with a land border of 15,106.7 Km and also a very long coastline of 7,516.6 Km. Here, we are providing you the list of Neighbouring Countries of India and the states that share borders with them. Check the important information about the neighbouring countries that will helps the you to enhance your general knowledge in dealing with the questions related to the Geography of India.


In this article, we will explore the neighbouring countries of India on map and learn about their unique characteristics. To begin with, let us take a glance at the seven countries that share borders with India: Afghanistan to the northwest; Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal and Bhutan to the north; Bangladesh to the east; and Myanmar to the east-southeast.




india and its neighbouring countries map download


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When we look at the map neighbouring countries of India, we can see how closely interlinked these nations are with each other. With Bangladesh being one of its immediate neighbours who share both a land boundary as well as cultural links with India.


Its capital city, Kathmandu, is a popular destination for trekkers and tourists alike who are drawn to its ancient temples and palaces. India map with states and neighbouring countries reveals that Nepal is situated in the northern part of India. It shares borders with five Indian states: Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, and Sikkim.


The political map of India with neighbouring countries shows that Nepal has strong historical ties with India dating back to ancient times when they shared cultural practices. The geographical proximity between these two neighbours is reflected in their close economic ties as well.


Trade between India and Nepal is largely informal but significant in volume. Both nations have recently taken steps to improve connectivity by opening new air routes and building infrastructure such as roads and bridges. These initiatives aim to promote people-to-people contact as well as boost trade relations between the neighbouring countries of India on the world map.


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Moving on from discussing Pakistan as one of our neighbouring countries on the map of India, political borders come into play once again when we consider Sri Lanka, which lies off the southern coast of Tamil Nadu. ( see the Neighbouring Countries Of India On Map to locate the nation)


However, despite these tensions between its two powerful neighbours, Bhutan maintains a policy of neutrality and non-alignment. Despite being one of the smallest neighbouring countries of India in terms of population size (less than 1 million people), Bhutan boasts rich cultural diversity and natural beauty.


Understanding the neighbouring countries of India is essential for anyone who wishes to deepen their knowledge about South Asian geography or prepare for government exams. With its unique culture and close ties with India throughout history, Myanmar stands out as an important neighbour worth exploring further.


Indian relations with neighbouring countries are crucial for maintaining regional stability and economic growth. India provides significant aid to Nepal in areas such as infrastructure development and disaster relief. The two countries have also signed several agreements for cooperation in sectors like trade, energy, and security.


Top Neighbouring Countries of India. As you know static part forms the core of any competitive examination. It is comparatively vast than we think it is, as anything under the sun is asked in the examination. The best thing one can do is to go through the information every day. The more curious you become, the more likely are the chance to come through any level of examination. In this article, we are sharing with you the static data in the form of PDF associated with the neighbouring countries. You can download the Neighbouring Countries of India PDF and read it at your own convenience.


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Although poor people do also migrate, they tend to do so less often, and if they migrate, they tend to do so overall smaller distances. This also seems to explain why the skilled and relatively wealth are overrepresented among long-distance international migrants. This particularly holds when border controls and immigration restrictions increase the costs and risks of migrating to wealthy countries. We can therefore also expect emigration to become less selective if societies as a whole become wealthier and more developed, as this will also lift relatively poor people above the material threshold needed to migrate internationally, initially to neighbouring countries but increasingly also overseas.


The isolation of B. pseudomallei from patients and the environment in Myanmar not only confirmed the continuing endemicity of melioidosis in the country but enabled phylogenetic comparisons of B. pseudomallei from Myanmar with those from neighbouring countries and the global B. pseudomallei dataset in order to infer the origins and investigate whether the recent re-emergence of melioidosis in Myanmar reflected persistence or recent re-introductions. This study included sixteen B. pseudomallei isolates from Myanmar (nine human and seven environmental). We present the first Myanmar B. pseudomallei whole-genome sequences (WGS) and, using large-scale comparative-genomics, we attempt to determine the origin of B. pseudomallei in Myanmar.


On interrogating the B. pseudomallei PubMLST database, four of the nine STs were shared by neighbouring countries: ST56, Bangladesh (seven isolates), Cambodia (two isolates), Thailand (four isolates) and Vietnam (two isolates); ST90, United Kingdom with history of travel to Asia (eleven isolates), a USA isolate with unknown travel history, China (one isolate); ST1371, India (two isolates) and ST346, France (one isolate). The original source of the isolates linked to the United Kingdom, USA and France, which were presumably imported, is not available. Draft genomes from three ST56 genomes, one from Bangladesh and two from Vietnam were available for comparison to our Myanmar ST56s (see next section).


Phylogeography demonstrated that the Myanmar isolates shared nodes and clustered with isolates from neighbouring countries (Fig. 3). Clade one (thirteen Myanmar isolates); four Myanmar isolates shared a node with four Thai isolates (moderate bootstrap value 70%) and nine Myanmar isolates shared a node with a cluster that contained isolates from India (three isolates), Bangladesh (one isolate) and Malaysia (one isolate) (bootstrap value 92%). Clade two (three ST56 Myanmar isolates): three Myanmar isolates shared a node with a cluster that contained isolates from Bangladesh (four isolates), Pakistan (one isolate: the true origin of this isolate is uncertain28), Laos (two isolates), Thailand (four isolates), China (one isolate), Malaysia (four isolates) and Indonesia (one isolate) (well supported bootstrap value 97%), and descended from a Thai isolate. The closest isolate to a Myanmar isolate was a Thai isolate in clade two which differed by 4,317 SNPs-indels from a Myanmar isolate and the node was well supported (bootstrap value 97%). An ML global phylogeny supported the clustering observed here as did an Asian-only phylogeny (data not shown).


Our MLST and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that B. pseudomallei from Myanmar are genetically diverse and heterogenous, with nine STs identified amongst only sixteen isolates. This finding is consistent with the high levels of genetic and ST diversity in B. pseudomallei from neighbouring countries including India32, China33 and Thailand34 and in the ancient B. pseudomallei population from the Northern Territory of Australia35,36. Five of the Myanmar STs had not been previously identified, with four being environmental isolates. Furthermore, based on phylogenetics at a local level, environmental isolates clustered by geography, suggesting geographical restriction of B. pseudomallei within Myanmar, as demonstrated in Australia36,37,38. However, more environmental sampling in Myanmar is necessary to elucidate whether genotype-geographical links exist and on what spatial scale. Four STs had previously been reported and are shared by neighbouring countries: ST56 ST90, ST346 and ST1371, and additional ST56 genomes were publicly available. Our phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that, despite the ST56 genomes being of Asian origin, the Myanmar ST56s are genetically distinct from those from Bangladesh and Vietnam (separated by 5,688 to 12,103 SNPs-indels) and did not all share a common ancestor, clustering in three phylogenetic locations. This represents another instance of ST homoplasy, which with increasing whole genome analyses is being recognised increasingly and which highlights the limitations of MLST, with unrecognised ST homoplasy suggesting incorrect associations between B. pseudomallei genotypes that confounds analysis of melioidosis epidemiology39,40,41,42. The genetic distance of ST56 genomes from the Australasian node suggests that ST56 may have spread from Vietnam to Myanmar and then from Myanmar on towards Bangladesh, but additional ST56 isolates are needed to confirm this hypothesis.


In conclusion we have used WGS and large-scale comparative-genomics to describe for the first time the genetic diversity and phylogeography of B. pseudomallei in Myanmar, the country where melioidosis was originally recognised. We have demonstrated that B. pseudomallei from Myanmar are genetically diverse, supporting the long-term endemicity of B. pseudomallei in Myanmar. Phylogenomic analysis revealed that Myanmar B. pseudomallei cluster in the Asian clade linking to isolates from neighbouring countries, including those bordered by the Mekong River. It is thus likely that B. pseudomallei has been introduced into Myanmar from these close neighbours on more than one occasion. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of anthropogenic factors in both the past and evolving regional and global dispersal of B. pseudomallei.


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