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Poetry Discussion

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Gabriel Gomez
Gabriel Gomez

Ireland And Masculinities In History ((FREE))

Rebecca Anne Barr is a University Lecturer in English, and a Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge. Her research focuses on gender, sexuality, and fiction in the long eighteenth century, with occasional forays into twentieth-century and contemporary culture. She has published widely on masculinity, sexual violence, and the history of the novel. Alongside numerous articles and chapters she is also co-editor of several collections of essays including Ireland and Masculinities in History (2019), and Bellies, Bowels, and Entrails in the Eighteenth Century (2018). Her fellowship at CRASSH is part of a wider book project entitled Humouring Men.

Ireland and Masculinities in History

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Although Mosse recognises diverse masculinities, the normative gender ideal that he identifies was widely shared. No political movement could survive without it. The possibilities for a counter-masculinity which embraced peace not war, solidarity rather than nationalism, did develop within socialist movements but were short-lived as these movements also found that they needed a masculinity stereotype which urged men to be strong, victorious, and beautiful. While in times of relative peace, the factory could be the working man's battlefield; when under threat, more bloody combat was demanded. To survive, socialist men had to be prepared to fight. Religion also failed to provide a consistent counter-masculinity. Evangelical Christianity with its emphasis on man as the tender bridegroom of Christ failed to dismantle the manly ideal. The Evangelical ideal man was the patriarchal head of the family who exemplified self-control as well as gentle paternalism. In other words, this ideal merely smoothed the 'rough edges' of masculinity, bringing it into line with middle-class sensibilities. The mid-nineteenth century emergence of 'muscular Christianity' was proof of evangelicalism's potential to reconcile the Greek ideal of manliness with piety.

Finally, although Mosse links normative masculinity with the horrors of National Socialism, he does not satisfactorily explain why there was no major backlash against it after the Second World War. Why not? If the stereotype that Mosse so brilliantly exposes was to a large extent to blame for the persecution of Jews, gypsies, homosexuals, and other outsider groups, why did these people not attack it more strongly? This is the history he has not told, and so I await the next volume.

Joanna Bourke has read the book the way I had hoped that it would be read, as a serious effort at writing important but unconventional history. This makes her criticism all the more relevant. The most general criticism is that I was apparently unsure of my audience, that while the book seems to address the general reader with clarity, still I also looked towards an academic reader by assuming that certain topics are familiar. I intended to address the book to a general reader but I did assume some knowledge of the context. More important, I wanted to keep a sharp focus on the male stereotype itself, its history and significance. Perhaps in that process I have shed too much 'unnecessary fat'. But I did have an agenda in writing this book; to demonstrate that here is a factor that is so familiar that it is taken for granted, but which still plays its part it the political and social perception of men and women. I conceived my audiences not as professional historians but as the cultivated lay reader who comes to the book with some sense of European history, however rudimentary. Is that kind of readership an endangered species thanks to over specialisation and the state of secondary schools?

The image of man held and so did the respectable life style of which it was an integral part, I felt that my book addressed a stereotype usually taken for granted but which should emerge into history. I also hoped to contribute to a historical discussion of masculinity which might challenge the current trend which tends to treat masculinity solely as a psychoanalytic problem. Here scholars like Joanna Bourke have already begun to make seminal contributions.

The Moore Institute stands at the forefront of University of Galway's commitment to world-leading inquiry in humanities, culture, and society. Founded in 2000, and named after the distinguished Moore family of Moore Hall, Co. Mayo, the Institute has earned major national and international grants and led projects across the disciplines in areas from archaeology to ancient history and medieval studies, and from the early modern period to the present day, including politics, gender, and performance.

But the American phase of the Vietnam War (1959-1975) had power beyond numbers. It was the centerpiece event in a span of U.S. history that shook cultural norms to the core, and unleashed the tumult of civil rights, war protest, sexual liberation, and urban unrest.

Declan Kavanagh is a Senior Lecturer in Eighteenth-Century Studies with research interests in the literary history of sexuality, Eighteenth-century British literature and culture, masculinity, disability studies, Irish literature, and representations of Western queer cultures.

My scholarship falls at the intersection on Irish studies and sexuality studies, with recent publications on queer migrant writing, queer archives, and gay rugby. I have also published four books of poetry. I am currently juggling three projects: a study of queer and marginal masculinities in Irish culture; a memoir based in part in my residency in Brazil, and a new collection of poetry.

Muslim Masculinities: Gender, Religion, and the Everyday brings together Penn, national, and international scholars examining Muslim masculinities in all their complexities within and beyond the United States.This panel discussion explores Masculinities in the Making. 041b061a72


discussion about poetry by Kelly Alexandra Hoff.


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